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As outlined in our introduction, hypomagnesemia and, to a lesser degree,

Hypophosphatemia are associated with various forms of cardiac arrhythmia. The


Presence of hypokalemia increases the risk of developing arrhythmias.


Cerebral injury in itself is associated with myocardial damage and

Electrocardiogram abnormalities, including T-wave changes, a shortened P-R

Interval, a prolonged Q-T interval, premature ventricular contractions,

Ventricular ectopy, sinus bradycardia, and ventricular and supraventricular

Tachycardias [15]

. Development of electrolyte disorders as reported in the present study may

Increase the risk and severity of these complications after brain injury.

Alternatively, development of these electrolyte deficiencies may be one of the

Mechanisms through which neurologic trauma is associated with arrhythmias.

Various factors combine to put patients in the ICU at risk for the

Development of hypomagnesemia and hypophosphatemia. Causes of hypomagnesemia

Include protein-calorie malnutrition, intravenous administration of Mg-free

Fluids and total parenteral nutrition, as well as diarrhea and steatorrhea,

Short bowel syndrome, bowel fistula, and continuous nasogastric suctioning.

Renal causes include Bartter and Gitelman

Syndromes, postobstructive diuresis, postacute tubular necrosis, renal

Transplantation, and interstitial nephropathy. Medications that can induce renal

Mg wasting include loop and thiazide diuretics, aminoglycosides, amphotericin B,